Monday, May 9, 2016

Expanding Spacetime


I've written about this before somewhere on the NTD, but it's just so dang interesting I thought I'd run it by again. The Expanding Spacetime Theory (EST) offers a simple explanation for many of our cosmological puzzles by proposing that all four metrics of the expanding universe are expanding. Not just length and width and depth, but time as well. This means that the basis for the speed of light is changing, so essentially, technically speaking, the speed of light is changing as well.

Impossible, you say? Please, read on.

When we think of the universe, we usually have in mind something that contains everything there is. There is nothing “outside” the universe because if there were we could naturally include it into the universe we conceive.

In a self-sufficient universe there can be no absolute scale of material objects since scale is a relative concept. If you reflect on this you will realize that the scale of an object always is given in relation to some other object. But, if the size (scale) of an object only may be defined in relation to some other object, why should any particular scale take preference?

Einstein's General Relativity (GR) theory does not recognize an absolute scale of things. It tells us that the universe would look the same and behave the same if all objects including elementary particles were twice as large (or small) provided that the scale of time simultaneously changes so that the duration of a second is twice as long (or short). Therefore, the size of material objects only has relative meaning. No absolute predetermined scale can exist in the universe. If it did something “outside” the universe would have to determine the scale, which is a contradiction since the universe by definition contains everything.

Click to enlarge.
This completely relativistic view of the cosmos follows logically from the assumption that the universe is all there is and that nothing can exist “outside” the cosmos that might determine the scale of things. This fundamental insight is not new but has been expressed from time to time throughout the ages by philosophers and may also be found in Eastern religious teachings. The Eastern religions are based on the idea that everything exists and happens in the universe as the result of a tension, or dynamic exchange, between two opposing yet cooperating entities, for example the Yin and Yang of Taoism. In the West, however, where the idea that God created the world has dominated science and philosophy for many millenniums, a totally relativistic universe is not required or even contemplated since an absolute scale of material things is taken as a God given fact.

Here's the catch. If there is no absolute scale of things we might ask why the scale is what it is, thereby implicitly assuming that the scale of material objects always has and always will remain the same. However, we now know that the universe appears to expand, which makes it natural to consider the possibility that the cosmological expansion might be an expansion of the scale of everything.

If both space and time were to expand simultaneously, everything would expand in proportion. Locally such an expansion would be very difficult to detect. However, light reaching us from very distant sources would be affected by the cosmological scale expansion during the time for the light to reach us. It is easy to show that this light would become redshifted. In checking other observed features of the universe we find that it agrees with the Expanding Spacetime (EST), i.e. the EST universe looks and behaves exactly like our universe.

We can use Einstein's relativity theory to predict how the EST universe would appear to an inhabitant. By comparing these predictions with astronomical observations we can test the proposition that the scale of the universe actually is expanding. We find that the EST better agrees with observations than the Big Bang theory. Not only does it provide superior agreement with astronomical observations, but the EST theory also resolves several cosmological puzzles in a very natural way. It provides answers to a number of unresolved enigmas the most significant being the nature of the progression of time and the mystery of cosmological inertial reference frame. We know that time goes by but up till now there has been no physical explanation for the progression of time. We also know that an inertial reference frame must exist because of an inertial force resisting acceleration. However, what creates this cosmological reference frame has been a mystery. Some refer to this prime mover as God. And why not?

More here.

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