Monday, August 31, 2015

World's Largest Hard Drive

The PM1633a is nearly 60% bigger than the largest drives currently on the market.

Samsung has launched the world’s largest hard drive, a staggering 2.5-inch 16 terabyte flash drive that’s almost 60% bigger than the largest drives currently on the market. Aimed at enterprise consumers, the drive's price has not been disclosed yet.

According to Deutsch site, Samsung displayed a server containing 48 of the new drives, dubbed the PM1633a, at a California trade show. Samsung representatives apparently referred to the new product as JBOF, for "just a bunch of flash." Though the product likely won’t have a large customer base for another two to three years as demand increases, it gives Samsung considerable leverage in the very profitable (if unsexy) enterprise storage market.

Mary Shelley

Mary Shelley
Mary Shelley (also known as Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus (1818). She also edited and promoted the works of her husband, the Romantic poet and philosopher Percy Bysshe Shelley. Her father was the political philosopher William Godwin, and her mother was the philosopher and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft.

Mary Godwin's mother died when she was eleven days old; afterwards, she and her older half-sister, Fanny Imlay, were raised by her father. When Mary was four, Godwin married his neighbor, Mary Jane Clairmont. Godwin provided his daughter with a rich, if informal, education, encouraging her to adhere to his liberal political theories. In 1814, Mary Godwin began a romantic relationship with one of her father’s political followers, the married Percy Bysshe Shelley. Together with Mary's stepsister, Claire Clairmont, they left for France and traveled through Europe; upon their return to England, Mary was pregnant with Percy's child. Over the next two years, she and Percy faced ostracism, constant debt, and the death of their prematurely born daughter. They married in late 1816 after the suicide of Percy Shelley's first wife, Harriet.

Percy Bysshe Shelley
In 1816, the couple famously spent a summer with Lord Byron, John William Polidori, and Claire Clairmont near Geneva, Switzerland, where Mary conceived the idea for her novel Frankenstein. The Shelleys left Britain in 1818 for Italy, where their second and third children died before Mary Shelley gave birth to her last and only surviving child, Percy Florence. In 1822, her husband drowned when his sailing boat sank during a storm in the Bay of La Spezia. A year later, Mary Shelley returned to England and from then on devoted herself to the upbringing of her son and a career as a professional author. The last decade of her life was dogged by illness, probably caused by the brain tumor that was to kill her at the age of 53.

Frankenstein's Creation
Until the 1970s, Mary Shelley was known mainly for her efforts to publish Percy Shelley's works and for her novel Frankenstein, which remains widely read and has inspired many theatrical and film adaptations. Recent scholarship has yielded a more comprehensive view of Mary Shelley’s achievements. Scholars have shown increasing interest in her literary output, particularly in her novels, which include the historical novels Valperga (1823) and Perkin Warbeck (1830), the apocalyptic novel The Last Man (1826), and her final two novels, Lodore (1835) and Falkner (1837). Studies of her lesser-known works such as the travel book Rambles in Germany and Italy (1844) and the biographical articles for Dionysius Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia (1829–46) support the growing view that Mary Shelley remained a political radical throughout her life. Mary Shelley's works often argue that cooperation and sympathy, particularly as practiced by women in the family, were the ways to reform civil society. This view was a direct challenge to the individualistic Romantic ethos promoted by Percy Shelley and the Enlightenment political theories articulated by her father, William Godwin.

Friday, August 28, 2015

The News From Babylon

Here is a sampling of what's going on in American Law Enforcement this week:

Judge Sentenced To 28 Years For Selling ‘Kids For Cash’ To Prisons

A Pennsylvania judge was just sentenced to 28 years in prison for selling “kids-for-cash.” The bribery scandal made headlines when Former Luzerne County Judge Mark Ciavarella Jr. was alleged to have taking $1 million in bribes from juvenile detention centers to fill their cells with children who came before him in court.

Private Prisons Threaten To Sue States Unless They Get More Inmates For Free Labor

Freedom is apparently bad for business. That’s the message from the private prison industry which is threatening to sue states if they don’t start locking more people up. The private prison companies, well-known for profiting off of incarceration and crime, is now saying that the state’s they have contracted with aren’t keeping up their end of the bargain. The private prisons rely on a certain number of inmates for free and virtually-free slave labor.

Texas Town Fires Police Dept., Hires Private Citizens For Security — Guess What Happened to Crime?

The community of Sharpstown, Texas decided that they didn’t need the police any longer. They made a controversial decision to fire the local police department and hire private citizens, granted no special rights that ordinary citizens do not have, to keep them safe. That was back in 2012, and since then, Sharpstown residents say the private security company, SEAL Security Solutions, have done a much better job than the police used to. Crimes is down 61% in only 20 months.

Cocaine Production Plummets After DEA Kicked Out of Bolivia

After the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) was kicked out of Bolivia, the country was able to drastically reduce the amount of coca (cocaine) produced within its borders. That's right -- drastically reduce. According to data released by the United Nations, cocaine production in the country declined by 11% in the past year, marking the fourth year in a row of steady decrease. It was just seven years ago that the DEA left Bolivia — and only three years after that, progress was finally made. The strategy employed by the Bolivian government may be a surprise to many prohibitionists because it did not involve any strong-arm police state tactics. Instead, they worked to find alternative crops for farmers to grow that would actually make them more money.

AP Sues FBI Over Impersonating An AP Reporter With A Fake AP Story

This one is where the disinformation gets really thick because if you didn't already know, Associated Press (AP) is little more than the main propaganda arm of the US government. Talk about the snake eating its own tail. Last fall, the FBI set up a fake AP news story in order to implant malware during an investigation. This came out deep in a document that had been released via a FOIA request by EFF, and first noticed by Chris Soghoianof the ACLU. The documents showed the FBI discussing how to install some malware, called a CIPAV (for Computer and Internet Protocol Address Verifier) by creating a fake news story.

Jerry Seinfeld Hilariously Trolls Cops After they Shut Down his Son’s Lemonade Stand

To raise funds for a local baby clothes charity, funnyman Jerry Seinfeld and family set up a lemonade stand. However, their charitable endeavor would be short lived thanks to East Hampton police officers protecting the public from the dangers of an unlicensed lemonade stand. Seinfeld’s son, Julian, and two friends set up the stand last week so raise money for Baby Buggy. Baby Buggy is a charity started by Seinfeld’s wife Jessica to provide kids’ clothing and baby equipment to needy families.

Social Media Study Reveals Half Of Americans Hate Their Police Dept.

With the rise of digital technology, it has become easier and easier to document the transgressions of state enforcers like police so it is no surprise that according to a social media analysis by drug treatment and awareness website, almost half of Americans hate their local police department. The study found that a little over 47 percent of Americans gave their police precinct a grade of D or F with states like Arkansas, Idaho, Missouri, Virginia, and Georgia exhibiting the most overall dissatisfaction.

In unrelated news, here is a link to a story about political correctness and "gender sensitivity"at American University in Washington, DC, that will most likely make you want to set your hair on fire. And if you think the above is an isolated occurrence, check out this gender-bending story from the University of Tennessee.

Want to know a little more about the crazies at American University? Here ya go.

American University (AU or American) is a private, nationally ranked university in Washington, D.C., United States, affiliated with the United Methodist Church, although the university's curriculum is secular. The university was chartered by an Act of Congress on February 24, 1893 as "The American University," when the bill was approved by President Benjamin Harrison. Roughly 7,200 undergraduate students and 5,230 graduate students are currently enrolled. AU is a member of the Consortium of Universities of the Washington Metropolitan Area. A member of the Division I Patriot League, its sports teams compete as the American University Eagles.

I'm Going Down

Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Consciousness Causes Collapse

I was the administrator of an online social media site at one time. It was a wide open place and there were a lot of opinions. What I quickly discovered was that Christians and people of faith were denigrated and made fun of on a regular basis. Along with that were many irreverent discussions coming from all sorts of directions, philosophically speaking, especially from the so-called scientists in the group. These were generally people who professed to believe in the faith of scientific inquiry and reject everything else. If you couldn't see it, touch it, smell it, taste it, quantify it, etc., then it did not exist. Any reference to old, "paternalistic" religion was met with extreme rudeness.

Along with those types, there was another general group who did believe in spiritual matters but more in a pantheistic sense. They yammered on about the moon and goddesses and neo-mystical stuff that was just as far out as any Christian mysticism I had ever heard. Odd thing is, the self-appointed scientists did not attack those folks. They only attacked the Christians.

Since I've already admitted to being an administrator, you're probably wondering what I did to maintain order and assure the free flow of discussion. Well, when things got nasty, I issued warnings. If the warnings were ignored, I pulled accounts. I banned people. It was as simple as that. Now, the only people I had to deal with were those who were being nasty, right? And these were totally those among the so-called scientists, and pantheists, and goddess lovers, and wiccans, and so on. So, when I did pull a membership, it was always one of those folks rather than a Christian. By that time, the Christians had shut up and withdrawn. Most were driven out of the site, in any case, before things got that far.

And so what happened to those few who were banned? They did whatever they could to hack their way back inside to leave nasty messages and to spread stories about unequal treatment. They posted on other message boards and other community sites about how they had been unjustly treated. They cried. They whined. There were also instances of DOS attacks and spam bombs. Things got so bad, it finally brought down the site. By that time, I didn't care because like the other Christians, I just wanted out too. Who wants to associate with a bunch of sickos and nasty people?

When I look back, I see that circumstance as a microcosm of present-day American society.

There was a tiny, vocal minority that was particularly nasty. The owner of the site was also an admitted atheist and the vocal minority were his friends. Actually, the owner was what I call a working atheist in that he supported the idea that religion, specifically Christianity, should be eradicated. If pressed, he would admit the same for all other religions yet he never talked about them. Why did he hate Christianity in particular? Good question, but I think it was part of his natural disdain for any and all authority and Christianity just happened to be the cosmic authority he had grown up with. Had he grown up in Iran, he probably would have hated Islam.

In any case, it really didn't matter so much that the owner of the site was an atheist because he was also a practicing capitalist and did not want to alienate his Christian customers. It was all the same because by allowing one or two others to harass and harangue and dominate, the base of customers left the site. Why participate if it becomes painful to do so?

I wonder if the same thing is not happening in American society today? As a nation, we are incredibly fragmented and distant from one another in terms of any kind of unity. I can't imagine Democrats and Republicans working together because they have become polar opposites and the leaders of both parties are so obviously bought and paid-for by powerful international interests that neither can be loyal to their country. Politics is about the accumulation of raw power, nothing more, nothing less. Those who wield the power are those who stand behind the politicians. They are corporations, old money fronted by families and organizations that have been around for hundreds of years. They have enough money and connections to purchase the political positions and implant whoever they want.

Don't kid yourself. That is how it works whether you live in America or Moscow, which, by the way, grow more similar every day. Globalists, you see, often talk about an equal and fair one world arrangement. One world, one faith, one law, one religion -- at the expense of individuality. Even the hippies become caricatures of themselves. When it is regulated and categorized, then freedom no longer exists. Don't you know that already? Furthermore, without freedom, old-fashioned individual freedom of expression, there can be no sovereignty, no ownership of anything whether it be property or your own ideas. Maybe this is all simply too much for you to understand and, because it is all related to the idea of the free expression of Christianity, you simply can't wrap your brainwashed mind around it. Your own misguided conception of how the universe should be hinders your understanding of how the universe is.

I hope you're not one of those people. However, if you are, let this serve as notice. What you seek to change is the only proper view of reality. Oh, admittedly, there are many others, and sometimes they become dominant for a period of time, but in the long run, truth will prevail. While the strong may dominate for a time, the meek, you see, will inherit the earth.

It's our own consciousness that causes the collapse of logical choices into the one correct choice. Sure, you can continue to make the wrong choice over and over until you're finally out of choices altogether, or until you come to the conclusion that there is only one solution. Are you there yet? Can you see it from where you stand? Don't be blinded by your own self-delusion of how you think the world should be.

Fourteen Incredible Facts About 9/11

As the 14th anniversary of 9/11 approaches, it’s important to remind people that we still don’t know what happened that day. What is known about 9/11 is that there are many incredible facts that continue to be ignored by the government and the mainstream media. Here are fourteen.

1. An outline of what was to become the 9/11 Commission Report was produced before the investigation began. The outline was kept secret from the Commission’s staff and appears to have determined the outcome of the investigation.

2. The 9/11 Commission claimed sixty-three (63) times in its Report that it could find “no evidence” related to important aspects of the crimes.

3. One person, Shayna Steinger, issued 12 visas to the alleged hijackers in Saudi Arabia. Steiger issued some of the visas without interviewing the applicants and fought with another employee at the embassy who tried to prevent her lax approach.

4. Before 9/11, the nation’s leading counter-terrorism expert repeatedly notified his friends in the United Arab Emirates of top-secret U.S. plans to capture Osama bin Laden. These treasonous leaks prevented Bin Laden’s capture on at least two separate occasions.

Sandy Berger
5. Former National Security Advisor Sandy Berger was caught stealing documents from the National Archives that had been requested by the 9/11 Commission. The Commission had previously been denied access to the documents but the White House reluctantly agreed to turn them over just as Berger was trying to steal them.

6. The official story of the failed air defenses on 9/11 was changed several times and, in the end, paradoxically exonerated the military by saying that the military had lied many times about its response. The man who was behind several of the changing accounts was a specialist in political warfare (i.e. propaganda).

7. Military exercises being conducted on the day of 9/11 mimicked the attacks as they were occurring and obstructed the response. NORAD commander Ralph Eberhart sponsored those exercises, failed to do his job that day, and later lied to Congress about it (if the 9/11 Commission account is true).

8. A third skyscraper collapsed late in the afternoon on 9/11. This was WTC 7, a 47-story building that the government’s final report says fell into its own footprint due to office fires. The building’s tenants included U.S. intelligence agencies and a company led in part by Donald Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney. Meetings were scheduled there to discuss terrorism and explosives on the morning of 9/11.

9. News agencies, including BBC and CNN, announced the destruction of WTC 7 long before it happened. One BBC reporter announced the collapse while viewers could see the still-standing building right behind her in the video. Years later, after claiming that it had lost the tapes and then found them again, BBC’s answer to this astonishing report was that everything was just “confusing and chaotic” that day. Of course, one problem with this is that the news agencies predicted the exact building, of the many damaged in the area, that would collapse. Another big problem is that no one could have possibly predicted the collapse of WTC 7 given the unprecedented and unbelievable official account for how that happened.

10. Construction of the new, 52-story WTC 7 was completed two years before the government knew what happened to the first WTC 7. In fact, when the new building was completed in 2006, the spokesman for the government investigation said, “We’ve had trouble getting a handle on building No. 7.” The construction of the new building, without regard for how the first one was destroyed, indicates that building construction professionals in New York City did not believe it could ever happen again.

11. Ultimately, building construction codes were not changed as a result of the root causes cited by the National Institute for Standards and Technology for destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) buildings. This fact shows that the international building construction community does not believe that the WTC buildings were destroyed as stated in the official account.

12. AMEC, the company that just finished rebuilding the exact spot where Flight 77 was said to hit, was put in charge of cleanup at the WTC and the Pentagon. The man who ran the company, Peter Janson, was a long-time business associate of Donald Rumsfeld.

13. The response of the U.S. Secret Service to the 9/11 attacks suggests foreknowledge of the events in that the agency failed to protect the president from the obvious danger posed by terrorists.

14. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission notified the FBI of suspected 9/11 insider trading transactions. That evidence was ignored and the suspects were not even questioned by the FBI or the 9/11 Commission.

There are, of course, many more incredible facts about 9/11 that continue to be ignored by authorities and much of the media. Let’s hope that the next major terrorist attack results in legitimate reporting and unified calls for truth before fourteen years have passed.

Monday, August 24, 2015

Anybody Hungry?

A McDonald's corn muffin has more calories than a glazed donut. A small packet of Wendy's honey mustard dressing has 280 calories.

Sunday, August 23, 2015

The Unexamined Life Is Not Worth Living

This statement of Socrates’, as told by Plato, is sufficient to explain the necessity of studying philosophy. Everyone is pitched into the world blindly and makes do as best they can with the things they are given. For many, this muddling through is hard enough, and examining their motives and the rightness of their actions is just an added, and superfluous, difficulty. However, if we do not examine our lives and use the wisdom we gain from it to plan the future, we are no better than animals following instinct to survive. To take control of your life you must engage your mind. This is not to say that everyone must become a new Socrates, or study academic philosophy, but to paraphrase Voltaire ‘we must all cultivate our own wisdom.’

Saturday, August 22, 2015

Vote For Me...

Vote for me, or Hillary, or Donald, or whomever -- it doesn't really matter as long as you're angry and backing one side or the other.

Slave Labor In The US

For decades, the Soviet Gulags under Joseph Stalin had been considered some of the worst prisons in all of history. But now things have changed.

The United States has far exceeded the horrific tolls of the gulags. In the Soviet example, there were more than 18 million victims during the gulags’ use over four decades.

Around a million people died in the gulags over the years.

Now, as of 2009, the United States tolls soar higher than 7 million in prison, on probation or in some way caught up in the American prison system.

On the surface that might sound like a lot less than the gulag total above. But when you factor in all who have been put through the US prison system, we find a total that is higher than 19 million. That’s more than the 18 million locked up in the gulag system over those forty years.

Just like the Soviet Gulag System, the American Prison-For-Profit industry sells itself with the pitch that it is about “rehabilitation.” The government even has the audacity to call the prison system the “U.S. Department of Corrections.”

In the former Soviet Union, they called this vospitaniye and perevospitaniye, meaning essentially: “re-education.”

Oddly, however, in the Soviet gulags, prisoners were forced to learn the arts – playing in orchestras and the like. In the United States Gulags, prisoners are forced to make uniforms for McDonald’s and Applebees, or to harvest produce for Whole Foods.

The private prison companies, well-known for profiting off of incarceration and crime, is now saying that the state’s they have contracted with aren’t keeping up their end of the bargain. The private prisons rely on a certain number of inmates for free and virtually-free slave labor.

That labor is used for a variety of trades, including making uniforms for popular restaurants like McDonalds and Applebee’s. But if the private prisons don’t have enough inmates locked up then production goes down correlative with the decrease in free labor (i.e. slavery).

It comes as a surprise to many Americans, but slavery was never actually abolished in the United States. That’s not a metaphor, it’s a matter of careful reading of the 13th amendment to the Constitution. That amendment – often lauded for abolishing slavery – actually makes an exception for prisons. Slavery is still completely legal as “punishment for a crime.”

USA Today explains the following:

Ratified at the end of the Civil War, the amendment abolished slavery, with one critical exception: Slavery and involuntary servitude actually remain lawful “as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.” In other words, according to this so-called punishment clause, if you get pulled over with the wrong controlled substance in your trunk, there’s nothing in the 13th Amendment to ensure you can’t be considered a slave of the state.

The punishment clause was taken directly from the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and reflected the belief of the time that hard work was essential to prisoners’ moral rehabilitation. But the language was also ambiguous enough to be grossly abused. Soon, the clause was being used to reinstitute slavery under another guise.

Consider that there are more African Americans behind bars today than there were enslaved at any given time in American history and it becomes clear how corporations got their “work around” to keep slavery 100% legal. This is nothing new. This is the way it has been since slavery was supposedly abolished.

Now, the private prison industries say the government isn’t keeping up their end contracts for this slave labor.

Those government agencies signed contracts guaranteeing a minimum occupancy or quota of prisoner-slaves

California guarantees that prisons will be filled to 70% capacity at all times. Arizona promises almost 100% occupancy.

With crime dropping, the private prison industry is losing money and they are none too pleased.

In order to avoid these lawsuits, judges will have to dish out extra-long maximum sentences – not because the defendant deserves it, but because the state wants to keep these contracts in good standing with the private prison industry.

If you oppose slavery and an oppressive government, then SPREAD THE WORD about this legal-loophole that has been keeping slavery in full effect since the 13th amendment was written.

Thursday, August 20, 2015

Down On The Boulevard

Robin Williams was best known for being funny, right? His incisive observational skills combined with rapid-fire verbal barrages earned him the title of comic genius. Unfortunately, this final movie of his isn't funny at all.

In Robin Williams' last movie role, entitled Boulevard, he plays a 60 year old man who suddenly decides to act on years of homosexual fantasies at the risk of losing his wife, his job, and his reputation. Indeed, that is exactly what happens, but first the audience has to sit through an hour and a half of a slow build-up to the ruination of a man's life, although, predictably, it is portrayed as a sort of liberation for the character, an act of rebellion that allows the main character in the story to pursue what he always wanted but was too afraid.

Boulevard is so full of logical inconsistencies, it makes one wonder if it is intended to be a sympathetic look at a squirmingly awkward and unlikely situation or if the project is intended to convince us that there are legions of closeted American homosexual men out there struggling with their true natures. Personally, I think it is neither. Instead, it will be regarded as Robin Williams' last movie before he asphyxiated himself at home in a shocking suicide. It is his last role and the one he knew would be his last. Am I the only one who wonders if Mr. Williams at the age of 63 years, was also struggling with his own sexuality?

Well, we'll never know. But we do have this train wreck of a movie to analyze in the context of Robin Williams' death.

Robin Williams plays the role of a banker (Nolan Mack) in one of those metropolitan branch banks -- he is not exactly a rich bigwig, but rather a guy who has slugged it out day by day for years in the same job without either ambitions or dreams. He is married to an intelligent, loving woman, has a nice home, but does not share the same bed or bedroom with his wife. He has a friend, a college teacher of literature who is portrayed as a bit of a Lothario himself, dating one of his students in a recognizably dead-end relationship. The two male friends have vacant conversations that are supposed to reveal something about both men but instead cause the audience to expect some sort of Woody Allen type banter between the two, a la Annie Hall. The movie would have been better if they had.

But on with the show. One evening, while driving home from work, Nolan sees a male prostitute and gives in to his curiosity? burning desire? emotional vacuum? by picking up said prostitute played by Robert Aquire and taking him to a motel that rents rooms by the hour. Instead of acting on his impulse, Nolan drags the whole thing out and attempts to develop a relationship with the lad who, it turns out, is into drugs, has an evil pimp, and finally, it is revealed, has no interest at all in putting any energy into an emotional relationship with Nolan. The developing non-relationship is the crux of the movie. By the end of the show, you want to shout at Nolan, "I could have told you so!"

Of course, as stated above, all this time spent on pursuing this deviant affair ruins Nolan's marriage, gets him fired from his job, and in effect separates him from all that he knows while embarking on a grand new adventure of homosexual life. The last scene of the movie shows Nolan meeting a new man at a restaurant suggesting he is finally pursuing what he always wanted. The ex-wife is shown in a travel agency, finally going on that cruise she had discussed throughout the movie, although going solo and most likely broken-hearted after breaking up with her husband of what? forty years?

Yeah, but that doesn't matter as long as the main character realizes his dream of being with another man. It's a celebration of his personal breakthrough. To hell with everyone else.

The people who put out this monstrosity obviously wanted to show that the Nolan character was starved for an emotional relationship with another man and not one based necessarily on physical love. Fat chance in the real world. And this is what Robin Williams chose as his last film? Does anybody else wonder why Robin Williams would want to leave this movie as his final artistic statement?

A total waste of time. Cultural propaganda by the Hollywood crowd. Makes you wonder if it was financed by a federal grant. Two thumbs down.

Tuesday, August 18, 2015

Southern Culture On The Skids


Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, dating to the early 1950s in the United States, especially the South. As a genre, it blends the sound of Western musical styles such as country with that of rhythm and blues, leading to what is considered "classic" rock and roll. Some have also described it as a blend of the bluegrass style with rock and roll. The term "rockabilly" itself is a portmanteau of "rock" (from "rock 'n' roll") and "hillbilly", the latter a reference to the country music (often called "hillbilly music" in the 1940s and 1950s) that contributed strongly to the style. Other important influences on rockabilly include western swing, boogie woogie, jump blues and electric blues.

Initially popularized by artists such as Bill Haley, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash, Bob Luman and Jerry Lee Lewis, the influence and success of the style waned in the 1960s; nonetheless, during the late 1970s and early 1980s, rockabilly enjoyed a major revival through acts such as the Stray Cats. An interest in the genre endures even in the 21st century, often within a subculture. Rockabilly has left a legacy, spawning a variety of sub-styles and influencing other genres such as punk rock.

The Elvis 1968 "Comeback" and acts such as Sha Na Na and the Everly Brothers; the film American Graffiti and television show Happy Days created curiosity about the real music of the 1950s, particularly in England, where a rockabilly revival scene began to develop from the 1970s in record collecting and clubs. The Stray Cats were the most commercially successful of the new rockabilly artists. The band formed on Long Island in 1979 when Brian Setzer teamed up with two school chums calling themselves Lee Rocker and Slim Jim Phantom. While not true rockabilly, many contemporary indie pop, blues rock and country rock groups from the US, like Kings of Leon, Black Keys, Blackfoot, Prima Donna, or the White Stripes, were heavily influenced by rock and roll from the early 1960s.

There was a close relationship between blues and country music from the very earliest country recordings in the 1920s. The first nationwide country hit was "Wreck of the Old 97", backed with "Lonesome Road Blues", which also became quite popular. Jimmie Rodgers, the "first true country star", was known as the "Blue Yodeler", and most of his songs used blues-based chord progressions, although with very different instrumentation and sound from the recordings of his black contemporaries like Blind Lemon Jefferson and Bessie Smith.

During the 1930s and 1940s, two new sounds emerged. Bob Wills and his Texas Playboys were the leading proponents of Western Swing, which combined country singing and steel guitar with big band jazz influences and horn sections; Wills's music found massive popularity. Recordings of Wills's from the mid 1940s to the early 1950s include "two beat jazz" rhythms, "jazz choruses", and guitar work that preceded early rockabilly recordings. Wills is quoted as saying "Rock and Roll? Why, man, that's the same kind of music we've been playin' since 1928!... But it's just basic rhythm and has gone by a lot of different names in my time. It's the same, whether you just follow a drum beat like in Africa or surround it with a lot of instruments. The rhythm's what's important."

After blues artists like Meade Lux Lewis and Pete Johnson launched a nationwide boogie craze starting in 1938, country artists like Moon Mullican, the Delmore Brothers, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Speedy West, Jimmy Bryant, and the Maddox Brothers and Rose began recording what was known as "Hillbilly Boogie", which consisted of "hillbilly" vocals and instrumentation with a boogie bass line.

The Maddox Brothers and Rose were at "the leading edge of rockabilly with the slapped bass that Fred Maddox had developed". Maddox said, "You've got to have somethin' they can tap their foot, or dance to, or to make 'em feel it." After World War II the band shifted into higher gear leaning more toward a whimsical honky-tonk feel, with a heavy, manic bottom end - the slap bass of Fred Maddox.

"They played hillbilly music but it sounded real hot. They played real loud for that time, too ..." The Maddoxes were also known for their lively "antics and stuff." "We always put on a show ... I mean it just wasn't us up there pickin' and singing. There was something going on all the time." "... the demonstrative Maddoxes, helped release white bodies from traditional motions of decorum... more and more younger white artists began to behave on stage like the lively Maddoxes." Others believe that they were not only at the leading edge, but were one of the first Rockabilly groups, if not the first.

Along with country, swing and boogie influences, jump blues artists such as Wynonie Harris and Roy Brown, and electric blues acts such as Howlin' Wolf, Junior Parker, and Arthur Crudup, influenced the development of rockabilly. The Memphis blues musician Junior Parker and his electric blues band, Little Junior's Blue Flames, featuring Pat Hare on the guitar, were a major influence on the rockabilly style, particularly with their songs "Love My Baby" and "Mystery Train" in 1953.

Bill Monroe is known as the Father of Bluegrass, a specific style of country music. Many of his songs were in blues form, while others took the form of folk ballads, parlor songs, or waltzes. Bluegrass was a staple of country music in the early 1950s, and is often mentioned as an influence in the development of rockabilly.

The Honky Tonk sound, which "tended to focus on working-class life, with frequently tragic themes of lost love, adultery, loneliness, alcoholism, and self-pity", also included songs of energetic, uptempo Hillbilly Boogie. Some of the better known musicians who recorded and performed these songs are: the Delmore Brothers, the Maddox Brothers and Rose, Merle Travis, Hank Williams, Hank Snow, and Tennessee Ernie Ford.

The Perkins Brothers Band
Sharecroppers' sons Carl Perkins and his brothers Jay Perkins and Clayton Perkins, along with drummer W. S. Holland, had been playing their music roughly ninety miles from Memphis. The Perkins Brothers Band, featuring both Carl and Jay on lead vocals, quickly established themselves as the hottest band on the cutthroat, "get-hot-or-go-home" Jackson, Tennessee honky tonk circuit. Most of the requests for songs were for hillbilly songs that were delivered as jived up versions—classic Hank Williams standards infused with a faster rhythm.

It was here that Carl started composing his first songs. Watching the dance floor at all times for a reaction, working out a more rhythmically driving style of music that was neither country nor blues, but had elements of both, Perkins kept reshaping these loosely structured songs until he had a completed composition, which would then be finally put to paper. Carl was already sending demos to New York record companies, who kept rejecting him, sometimes explaining that this strange new style of country with a pronounced rhythm fit no current commercial trend. That would change in 1955 after recording the song 'Blue Suede Shoes' (recorded 19 December 1955). Later made more famous by Elvis Presley, Perkins' original version was an early rock 'n' roll standard.

In the early 1950s there was heavy competition among Memphis area bands playing an audience-savvy mix of covers, original songs, and hillbilly flavored blues. One source mentions both local disc jockey Dewey Phillips and Sam Phillips as being influential. Scotty Moore remembers that, "You could play ... As long as you could play, say, the top eight or ten songs from country, pop, R&B. They didn't care what instruments you had, as long as people could dance."

The Saturday Night Jamboree was a local stage show held every Saturday night at the Goodwyn Institute Auditorium in downtown Memphis, Tennessee in 1953–54. But of more historical significance were the unknown artists who came to perform at the Jamboree. They included: Elvis Presley, Johnny and Dorsey Burnette, Eddie Bond, Charlie Feathers, Jim Cannon, Reggie Young, Barbara Pittman,the Lazenby Twins, Bud Deckleman, Harmonica Frank Floyd, Marcus Van Story, Lloyd Arnold, and more. The shows were sometimes broadcast on KWEM Radio Station in West Memphis, Arkansas by Joe Manuel, who fronted the Jamboree and was a KWEM personality. Every Saturday night in 1953, the dressing rooms backstage were a gathering place where musicians would come together and experiment with new sounds—mixing fast country, gospel, blues and boogie woogie. Guys were bringing in new "licks" that they had developed and were teaching them to other musicians and were learning new "licks" from yet other musicians backstage. Soon these new sounds began to make their way out onto the stage of the Jamboree where they found a very receptive audience.

Younger musicians around Memphis, were beginning to play a mix of musical styles. Paul Burlison, for one, was playing in nondescript hillbilly bands in the very early 1950s. One of these early groups secured a fifteen-minute show on radio station KWEM in West Memphis, Arkansas. The time slot was adjacent to Howlin' Wolf's and the music quickly became a curious blend of blues, country and what would become known as rockabilly music. In 1951 and 1952 the Burnettes (Johnny and Dorsey) and Burlison played around Memphis and established a reputation for wild music. According to Burlison, "...when we started playing in 1951, we played an uptempo-style country beat with gospel, blues, and a little swing mixed in."

Beale St, Memphis, Tennessee, still goin' strong.
They played with Doc McQueen's Swing Band at the Hideaway Club but hated the type of music played by "chart musicians." Soon they broke away and began playing their energetic brand of rockabilly to small, but appreciative, local audiences. They wrote "Rock Billy Boogie," named after Johnny's new baby boy Rocky Burnette and Dorsey's new son Billy, who were both born in 1953, while working at the Hideaway. Unfortunately for the Burnettes and Burlison, they did not record the song until 1957.

The trio released "Train Kept A-Rollin'" in 1956, listed by Rolling Stone magazine as one of the top 500 rock songs of all time, having been covered by the Yardbirds, Aerosmith, and many others. Many consider this 1956 recording to be the first intentional use of a distortion guitar on a rock song, which was played by lead guitarist Paul Burlison. Many Rockabilly guitarists and historians now accept that on many of the classic recordings Johnny Burnette did in Nashville for Decca it was the legendary "A Team" of Grady Martin on guitar, Bob Moore on bass and Buddy Harmann on drums backing Johnny and Dorsey on vocals. In all likelihood both Paul Burlison and Grady Martin played on some of the Nashville recordings with who played what lost in the mists of time. The recording done in the Pythian temple in New York are undoubtedly all the work of Paul Burlison.

The use of distortion on a rock'n'roll record was more accurately Rocket 88 by Jackie Brenston and the Delta Cats. The legend of how the sound came about says that guitarist Willy Kizart's amplifier was damaged on Highway 61 when the band was driving from Mississippi to Memphis, Tennessee. An attempt was made to hold the cone in place by stuffing the amplifier with wadded newspapers, which unintentionally created a distorted sound; Phillips liked the sound and used it. Robert Palmer has written that the amplifier "had fallen from the top of the car", and attributes this information to Sam Phillips. However, in a recorded interview at the Experience Music Project in Seattle, Washington, Ike Turner stated that the amplifier was in the trunk of the car and that rain may have caused the damage; he is certain that it did not fall from the roof of the car.

Presley's first recording, a blues song titled "That's Alright Mama", was previously recorded in 1946 by Arthur Crudup. In this recording Presley married "black" and "white" genres to an extent that it was denied airplay on (white) country radio stations and (black) R&B stations, dismissed for being defined as both "black" and "white" music. Record Producer Sam Phillips was told by country deejays that Presley's "That's Alright Mama" was "black music" and lamented they would be "run out of town" for playing it. Similarly, R&B deejays categorized it as a (white) country song. When the song was finally played by one rogue deejay, Dewey Phillips, Presley's recording created so much excitement it was described as having waged war on segregated radio stations. "The Sun recordings were the first salvos in an undeclared war on segregated radio stations nationwide."

All of Presley's early records combined a blues song on one side and a country song on the other, but both sung in the same vein.

Presley's unique musical style rocketed him into the spotlight, and drew masses of followers: "But it's Presley's singing, halfway between a country western and a R&B rock 'n' roll style that has sent teenagers into a trance. Whether you like it or not, there will always be an Elvis Presley."

Presley's first, historical recordings took place at Sun Records, a small independent label run by Sam Phillips in Memphis, Tennessee. The historical significance of these first Presley recordings and their impact on future musical artists is well exemplified by the actions of legendary musical artist Bob Dylan, who is said to have gone to Sun Records and kissed the "x" where Elvis had stood to record his first recordings. Further stated by Dylan: "I thank God for Elvis Presley".

For several years, Phillips had been recording and releasing performances by blues and country musicians in the area. He also ran a service allowing anyone to come in off the street and for $3.98 (plus tax) record himself on a two-song vanity record. One young man who came to record himself as a surprise for his mother, he claimed, was Elvis Presley.

According to Phillips, "Ninety-five percent of the people I had been working with were black, most of them of course no name people. Elvis fit right in. He was born and raised in poverty. He was around people that had very little in the way of worldly goods."

Presley made enough of an impression that Phillips deputized guitarist Scotty Moore, who then enlisted bassist Bill Black, both from the Starlight Wranglers, a local western swing band, to work with the green young Elvis. The trio rehearsed dozens of songs, from traditional country, to "Harbor Lights", a hit for crooner Bing Crosby to gospel. During a break on July 5, 1954, Elvis "jumped up ... and started frailin' guitar and singin' "That's All Right, Mama". Scotty and Bill began playing along. Excited, Phillips told them to "back up and start from the beginning." Two or three takes later, Phillips had a satisfactory recording, and released "That's All Right", on July 19, 1954, along with an "Elvis Presley Scotty and Bill" version of Bill Monroe's waltz, Blue Moon of Kentucky, a country standard.

Presley's Sun recordings feature his vocals and rhythm guitar, Bill Black's percussive slapped bass, and Scotty Moore on an amplified guitar. Slap bass had been a staple of both Western Swing and Hillbilly Boogie since the 1940s. Commenting on his own guitar playing, Scotty Moore said, "All I can tell you is I just stole from every guitar player I heard over the years. Put it in my data bank. An' when I played that's just what come out."

Scotty Moore described their first session, resulting in the recording of "That's Alright Mama": "We were taking a break and, all of sudden, Elvis started singing this song, jumping around and acting the fool. Then Bill Black picked up his bass and began acting the fool too, and I started playing with them. Sam had the door to the control room open, and stuck his head out and said, 'What are you doing?' We said, 'We don't know'. He said, 'Well, back up. Try to find a place to start, and do it again'. So we kinda talked it over and figured out a little bit what we were doin'. We ran it again, and of course Sam is listenin'. 'Bout the third or fourth time through, we just cut it. It was basically a rhythm record. It wasn't any great thing. It wasn't Sam tellin' him what to do. Elvis was joking around, just doing what come naturally, what he felt."

Tillman Franks has been quoted as saying, "I want you to give Bill Black the credit." On "That's All Right (Mama)" and "Blue Moon of Kentucky" Elvis sang the way Bill Black played bass."

Some have claimed that the sound of "That's Alright" was not entirely new, "It wasn't that they said 'I never heard anything like it before.' It wasn't as if this started a revolution, it galvanized a revolution. Not because Elvis had expressed something new, but he expressed something they had all been trying to express." Sam Phillips indicated that for him it was a new sound, saying "It just broke me up". And many echo the sentiment that it was a sound like no other they had heard: "When I first heard Elvis singing 'That's Alright Mama'. The time just stood still. It knocked my socks off." --Ramon Maupin.

Nobody was sure what to call Presley's music, so Elvis was described as "The Hillbilly Cat" and "King of Western Bop." Over the next year, Elvis would record four more singles for Sun. Rockabilly recorded by artists prior to Presley can be described as being in the long-standing country style of Rockabilly. Presley's recordings are described by some as quintessential rockabilly for their true union of country and R&B, which can be described as the true realization of the Rockabilly genre. In addition to the fusion of distinct genres, Presley's recordings contain some traditional as well as new traits: "nervously up tempo" (as Peter Guralnick describes it), with slap bass, fancy guitar picking, lots of echo, shouts of encouragement, and vocals full of histrionics such as hiccups, stutters, and swoops from falsetto to bass and back again.

By end of 1954 Elvis asked D.J. Fontana, who was the underutilized drummer for the Louisiana Hayride, "Would you go with us if we got any more dates?" Presley was now using drums, as did many other rockabilly performers; drums were then uncommon in country music. In the 1955 sessions shortly after Presley's move from Sun Records to RCA, Presley was backed by a band that included Moore, Black, Fontana, lap steel guitarist Jimmy Day, and pianist Floyd Cramer. In 1956 Elvis acquired vocal backup via the Jordanaires.

In 1951 a western swing bandleader named Bill Haley recorded a version of "Rocket 88" with his group, the Saddlemen. It is considered one of the earliest recognized rockabilly recordings. Haley and his band mates crafted a rockabilly sound during this period as the Saddlemen. It was followed by versions of "Rock the Joint" in 1952, and original works such as "Real Rock Drive" and "Crazy Man, Crazy", the latter of which reached number 12 on the American Billboard chart in 1953.

On April 12, 1954, Haley with his band (now known as Bill Haley and His Comets) recorded "Rock Around the Clock" for Decca Records of New York City. When first released in May 1954, "Rock Around the Clock" made the charts for one week at number 23, and sold 75,000 copies. A year later it was featured in the film Blackboard Jungle, and soon afterwards it was topping charts all over the world and opening up a new genre of entertainment. "Rock Around the Clock" hit No. 1, held that position for eight weeks, and was the number two song on the Billboard Hot 100 chart for 1955. The recording was, until the late 1990s, recognized by Guinness World Records as having the highest sales claim for a pop vinyl recording, with an "unaudited" claim of 25 million copies sold.

Rock 'n' roll, an expansive term coined a couple years earlier by DJ Alan Freed, had now been to the pop mountaintop, a position it would never quite relinquish.

Maine native, and Connecticut resident Bill Flagg began using the term rockabilly for his combination of rock 'n' roll and hillbilly music as early as 1953 He cut several songs for Tetra Records in 1956 and 1957. "Go Cat Go" went into the National Billboard charts in 1956, and his "Guitar Rock" is cited as classic rockabilly.

In 1953 at the age of 13 Janis Martin was developing her own proto-rockabilly style on WRVA's Old Dominion Barn Dance, which broadcast out of Richmond, VA. Although Martin performed mostly country songs for the show, she also did songs by Rhythm and blues singers Ruth Brown and LaVern Baker, as well as a few Dinah Washington songs. "The audience didn't know what to make of it. They didn't hardly allow electric instruments, and I was doing some songs by black artists—stuff like Ruth Brown's "(Mama) He Treats Your Daughter Mean."

In 1954, both Johnny Cash and Carl Perkins auditioned for Sam Phillips. Cash hoped to record gospel music, but Phillips immediately nixed that idea. Cash did not return until 1955. In October 1954 Carl Perkins and "The Perkins Brothers Band" showed up at the Sun Studios. Phillips recorded Perkins's original song Movie Magg, which was released early March 1955 on Phillips's Flip label, which was all country.

Presley's second and third records were not as successful as the first. The fourth release in May 1955 Baby, Let's Play House peaked at number five on the national Billboard Country Chart. The Sun label correctly lists "Gunter" (Arthur) as the song writer, a song which he recorded in 1954.

Cash returned to Sun in 1955 with his song Hey, Porter, and his group the Tennessee Three, who became the Tennessee Two before the session was over. This song and another Cash original, Cry! Cry! Cry! were released in July. Cry! Cry! Cry! managed to crack Billboard's Top 20, peaking at No. 14.

In August Sun released Elvis's versions of "I Forgot to Remember to Forget" and "Mystery Train". "Forgot ...", written by Sun country artists Stan Kesler and Charlie Feathers, spent a total of 39 weeks on the Billboard Country Chart, with five of the those weeks at the number one spot. "Mystery Train", with writing credits for both Herman Little Junior Parker and Sam Phillips, peaked at number 11.

Through most of 1955, Cash, Perkins, Presley, and other Louisiana Hayride performers toured through Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Louisiana and Mississippi. Sun released two more Perkins songs in October: "Gone, Gone, Gone" and "Let the Jukebox Keep on Playing". Scotty Moore commented on the different roles of Elvis and Perkins, "Carl was a nice-looking big hunk, like out in the cornfield type. Elvis was more like an Adonis. But as a rockabilly, Carl was the king of that."

1955 was also the year in which Chuck Berry's hillbilly-influenced Maybellene reached high in the charts as a crossover hit, and Bill Haley and His Comets' Rock Around the Clock was not only number one for eight weeks, but was the number two record for the year. Rock 'n' Roll in general, and rockabilly in particular, was at critical mass and the next year, Elvis Presley's Heartbreak Hotel and Don't Be Cruel would top the Billboard Charts as well.

In January 1956 three new classic songs by Cash, Perkins, and Presley were released: "Folsom Prison Blues" by Cash, and "Blue Suede Shoes" by Perkins, both on Sun; and "Heartbreak Hotel" by Presley on RCA. Other rockabilly tunes released this month included See You Later Alligator by Roy Hall and Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On by the Commodores (no relation to the '70s Motown group).

Perkins's "Blue Suede Shoes" sold 20,000 records a day at one point, and it was the first million-selling country song to cross over to both rhythm and blues and pop charts. On February 11, Presley appeared on the Dorsey Brothers' Stage Show for the third time, singing "Blue Suede Shoes" and "Heartbreak Hotel." He performed "Blue Suede Shoes" two more times on national television, and "Heartbreak Hotel" three times throughout 1956. Both songs topped the Billboard charts.

Perkins first performed "Blue Suede Shoes" on television March 17 on Ozark Jubilee, a weekly ABC-TV program. From 1955 to 1960, the live national radio and TV show from Springfield, Missouri featured Brenda Lee and Wanda Jackson and guests included Gene Vincent and other rockabilly artists.

Sun and RCA weren't the only record companies releasing rockabilly music. In March Columbia released "Honky Tonk Man" by Johnny Horton, King put out "Seven Nights to Rock" by Moon Mullican, Mercury issued "Rockin' Daddy" by Eddie Bond, and Starday released Bill Mack's "Fat Woman". Carl Perkins, meanwhile, was involved in a major automobile accident on his way to appear on national television.

Two young men from Texas made their record debuts in April 1956: Buddy Holly on the Decca label, and, as a member of the Teen Kings, Roy Orbison with "Ooby Dooby" on the New Mexico/Texas based Je-wel label. Holly's big hits would not be released until 1957. Janis Martin was all of fifteen years old when RCA issued a record with "Will You, Willyum" and the Martin composed "Drugstore Rock 'n' Roll", which sold over 750,000 copies. King records issued a new disk by forty-seven-year-old Moon Mullican: "Seven Nights to Rock" and "Rock 'N' Roll Mr. Bullfrog". Twenty more sides were issued by various labels including 4 Star, Blue Hen, Dot, Cold Bond, Mercury, Reject, Republic, Rodeo, and Starday.

In April and May 1956, The Rock and Roll Trio played on the Ted Mack's TV talent show in New York City. They won all three times and guaranteed them a finalist position in the September supershow.

Gene Vincent and His Blue Caps' recording of "Be-Bop-A-Lula" was released on June 2, 1956, backed by "Woman Love." Within twenty-one days it sold over two hundred thousand records, stayed at the top of national pop and country charts for twenty weeks, and sold more than a million copies. These same musicians would have two more releases in 1956, followed by another in January 1957.

"Queen of Rockabilly" Wanda Jackson's first record came out in July, "I Gotta Know" on the Capitol label; followed by "Hot Dog That Made Him Mad" in November. Capitol would release nine more records by Jackson, some with songs she had written herself, before the 1950s were over.

The first record by Jerry Lee Lewis came out on December 22, 1956, and it featured the song "Crazy Arms" which had been a number one hit for Ray Price for twenty weeks earlier in the year, along with "End of the Road". Lewis would have big hits in 1957 with his version of Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On, issued in May, and "Great Balls Of Fire" on Sun.

There were thousands of musicians who recorded songs in the rockabilly style. An online database lists 262 musicians with names beginning with "A". And many record companies released rockabilly records. Some enjoyed major chart success and were important influences on future rock musicians.

Sun also hosted performers, such as Billy Lee Riley, Sonny Burgess, Charlie Feathers, and Warren Smith. There were also several female performers like Wanda Jackson who recorded rockabilly music long after the other ladies, Janis Martin, the female Elvis Jo Ann Campbell, and Alis Lesley, who also sang in the rockabilly style. Mel Kimbrough -"Slim", recorded "I Get Lonesome Too" and "Ha Ha, Hey Hey" for Glenn Records along with "Love in West Virginia" and "Country Rock Sound" for Checkmate a division of Caprice Records.

In the summer of 1958 Eddie Cochran had a chart-topping hit with "Summertime Blues". Cochran's brief career included only a few more hits, such as "Sitting in the Balcony" released in early 1957, "C'mon Everybody" released in October 1958, and "Somethin' Else" released in July 1959. Then in April 1960, while touring with Gene Vincent in the UK, their taxi crashed into a concrete lamp post, killing Eddie at the young age of 21. The grim coincidence in this all was that his posthumous UK number-one hit was called "Three Steps to Heaven".

Rockabilly music enjoyed great popularity in the United States during 1956 and 1957, but radio play declined after 1960. Factors contributing to this decline are usually cited as: The 1959 death of Buddy Holly {along with Ritchie Valens and the Big Bopper}, the induction of Elvis Presley into the army in 1958, and a general change in American musical tastes. The style remained popular longer in England, where it attracted a fanatical following right up through the mid-1960s.

Rockabilly music cultivated an attitude that assured its enduring appeal to teenagers. This was a combination of rebellion, sexuality, and freedom—a sneering expression of disdain for the workaday world of parents and authority figures. It was the first rock ‘n' roll style to be performed primarily by white musicians, thus setting off a cultural revolution that is still reverberating today.

One of the first written uses of the term "rockabilly" was in a June 23, 1956, Billboard review of Ruckus Tyler's "Rock Town Rock". Three weeks earlier, "rockabilly" was used in a press release describing Gene Vincent's "Be-Bop-A-Lula".

The first wave of rockabilly fans in the United Kingdom were called Teddy Boys because they wore long, Edwardian-style frock coats, along with tight black drainpipe trousers and brothel creeper shoes. By the early 1960s, they had metamorphosed into the rockers, and had adopted the classic greaser look of T-shirts, jeans, and leather jackets to go with their heavily slicked pompadour haircuts. The rockers loved 1950s rock and roll artists such as Gene Vincent, and some British rockabilly fans formed bands and played their own version of the music.

The most notable of these bands was The Beatles. When John Lennon first met Paul McCartney, he was impressed that McCartney knew all the chords and the words to Eddie Cochran's "Twenty Flight Rock". As the band became more professional and began playing in Hamburg, they took on the "Beatle" name (inspired by Buddy Holly's Crickets) and they adopted the black leather look of Gene Vincent. Musically, they combined Holly's melodic pop sensibility with the rough and rocking sounds of Vincent and Carl Perkins. When The Beatles became worldwide stars, they released versions of three different Carl Perkins songs, more than any other songwriter outside the band except for Larry Williams, who also added three songs to their discography. (Curiously, none of these three were sung by the Beatles' regular lead vocalists—"Honey Don't" (sung by Ringo) and "Everybody's Trying to be my Baby" (sung by George) from Beatles for Sale (1964) and "Matchbox" (sung by Ringo) on the Long Tall Sally EP (1964)).

Long after the band broke up, the members continued to show their interest in rockabilly. In 1975, Lennon recorded an album called Rock 'n' Roll, featuring versions of rockabilly hits and a cover photo showing him in full Gene Vincent leather. About the same time, Ringo Starr had a hit with a version of Johnny Burnette's "You're Sixteen". In the 1980s, McCartney recorded a duet with Carl Perkins, and George Harrison played with Roy Orbison in the Traveling Wilburys. In 1999, McCartney released Run Devil Run, his own record of rockabilly covers.

The Beatles were not the only British Invasion artists influenced by rockabilly. The Rolling Stones recorded Buddy Holly's "Not Fade Away" on an early single and later a rockabilly-style song, "Rip This Joint", on Exile on Main St.. The Who, despite being mod favourites, covered Eddie Cochran's "Summertime Blues" and Johnny Kidd and The Pirates' Shakin' All Over on their Live at Leeds album. Even heavy guitar heroes such as Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page were influenced by rockabilly musicians. Beck recorded his own tribute album to Gene Vincent's guitarist Cliff Gallup—Crazy Legs—and Page's band, Led Zeppelin, offered to work as Elvis Presley's backing band in the 1970s. However, Presley never took them up on that offer. Years later, Led Zeppelin's Page and Robert Plant recorded a tribute to the music of the 1950s called The Honeydrippers: Volume One.

The Elvis 1968 "Comeback" and acts such as Sha Na Na, Creedence Clearwater Revival, John Roman Jackson, Don McLean, Linda Ronstadt and the Everly Brothers; the film American Graffiti and television show Happy Days created curiosity about the real music of the 1950s, particularly in England, where a rockabilly revival scene began to develop from the 1970s in record collecting and clubs. The most successful early product of the scene was Dave Edmunds, who joined up with songwriter Nick Lowe to form a band called Rockpile in 1975. They had a string of minor rockabilly-style hits like "I Knew the Bride (When She Used to Rock 'n' Roll)." The group became a popular touring act in the UK and the US, leading to respectable album sales. Edmunds also nurtured and produced many younger artists who shared his love of rockabilly, most notably the Stray Cats.

Robert Gordon emerged from late 1970s CBGB punk act Tuff Darts, to reinvent himself as a rockabilly revival solo artist. He recorded first with 1950s guitar legend Link Wray, and later with U.K. studio guitar veteran Chris Spedding, and found borderline mainstream success. Also festering at CBGB's punk environs were The Cramps, who combined primitive and wild rockabilly sounds with lyrics inspired by old drive-in horror movies in songs like "Human Fly" and "I Was a Teenage Werewolf". Lead singer Lux Interior's energetic and unpredictable live shows attracted a fervent cult audience. Their "psychobilly" music influenced The Meteors and Reverend Horton Heat. In the early 80s was born in Colombia the Latin genre by Marco T Marco Tulio Sanchez, with "The Gatos MontaƱeros. The Polecats, from North London, were originally called The Cult Heroes, couldn't get any gigs at rockabilly clubs with a name that sounded "punk", so the original drummer Chris Hawkes came up with the name Polecats. Tim Polecat and Boz Boorer started playing together in 1976, they hooked up with Phil Bloomberg and Chris Hawkes at the end of 1977. The Polecats played rockabilly with a punk sense of anarchy and helped revive the genre for a new generation in the early 1980s.

The Stray Cats
In 1980, Queen scored a number-one hit on the Billboard Hot 100 with the rockabilly-inspired single "Crazy Little Thing Called Love."

The Stray Cats were the most commercially successful of the new rockabilly artists. The band formed on Long Island in 1979 when Brian Setzer teamed up with two school chums calling themselves Lee Rocker and Slim Jim Phantom. Attracting little attention in New York, they flew to London in 1980, where they had heard that there was an active rockabilly scene. Early shows were attended by the Rolling Stones and Dave Edmunds, who quickly ushered the boys into a recording studio. The Stray Cats had three UK Top Ten singles to their credit and two bestselling albums. They returned to the USA, performing on the TV show "Fridays" with a message flashing across the screen that they had no record deal in the States.

Soon EMI picked them up, their first videos appeared on MTV, and they stormed up the charts stateside. Their third LP, Rant 'N' Rave with the Stray Cats, topped charts across the USA and Europe as they sold out shows everywhere during 1983. However, personal conflicts led the band to break up at the height of their popularity. Brian Setzer went on to solo success working in both rockabilly and swing styles, while Rocker and Phantom continued to record in bands both together and singly. The group has reconvened several times to make new records or tours and continue to attract large audiences live, although record sales have never again approached their early Eighties success.

Shakin' Stevens was a Welsh singer who gained fame in the UK portraying Elvis in a stage play. In 1980, he took a cover of The Blasters' "Marie Marie" into the UK Top 20. His hopped-up versions of songs like "This Ole House" and "Green Door" were giant sellers across Europe. Shakin' Stevens was the biggest selling singles artist of the 1980s in the UK and number two across Europe, outstripping Michael Jackson, Prince, and Bruce Springsteen. Despite his popularity in Europe, he never became popular in the US. In 2005, his greatest hits album topped the charts in England. Other notable British rockabilly bands of the 1980s included The Jets, Crazy Cavan, Matchbox, and the Rockats.

Jason & the Scorchers combined heavy metal, Chuck Berry, and Hank Williams to create a punk-influenced style of rockabilly, often labelled as alt-country or cowpunk. They achieved critical acclaim and a following in America but never managed a major hit.

The revival was related to the "roots rock" movement, which continued through the 1980s, led by artists like James Intveld, who later toured as lead guitar for The Blasters, High Noon, the Beat Farmers, The Paladins, Forbidden Pigs, Del-Lords, Long Ryders, The Last Wild Sons, The Fabulous Thunderbirds, Los Lobos, The Fleshtones, Del Fuegos, and Barrence Whitfield and the Savages. These bands, like the Blasters, were inspired by a full range of historic American styles: blues, country, rockabilly, R&B, and New Orleans jazz. They held a strong appeal for listeners who were tired of the commercially oriented MTV-style synthpop and glam metal bands that dominated radio play during this time period, but none of these musicians became major stars.

In 1983, Neil Young recorded a rockabilly album titled Everybody's Rockin'. The album was not a commercial success and Young was involved in a widely publicized legal fight with Geffen Records who sued him for making a record that didn't sound "like a Neil Young record." Young made no further albums in the rockabilly style. During the 1980s, a number of country music stars scored hits recording in a rockabilly style. Marty Stuart's "Hillbilly Rock" and Hank Williams, Jr.'s "All My Rowdy Friends Are Coming Over Tonight" were the most noteworthy examples of this trend, but they and other artists like Steve Earle and the Kentucky Headhunters charted many records with this approach.

While not true rockabilly, many contemporary indie pop, blues rock and country rock groups from the US, like Kings of Leon, Black Keys, Blackfoot or the White Stripes, were heavily influenced by rock and roll from the early 1960s,.

Morrissey adopted a rockabilly style during the early 1990s, being largely influenced by his guitarists Boz Boorer and Alain Whyte and working with former Fairground Attraction bass-guitarist and songwriter Mark E. Nevin. His rockabilly style was emphasised in the singles "Pregnant for the Last Time" and "Sing Your Life", as well as his second solo album and tour Kill Uncle.

Drake Bell, originally a pop rock singer-songwriter, revived rockabilly with his 2014 album, Ready Steady Go!, which was produced by Brian Setzer, frontman of the rockabilly revival band, The Stray Cats.

Click to enlarge.
Neo-rockabilly UK band Restless, played Neo rockabilly from the early 80s. The style was to mix any popular music to a Rockabilly set up, Drums, Slap bass and guitar. This was followed by many other artists at the time in London including, Deltas, Long tall texans, Guana batz etc... Today, bands like Lower The Tone are more aligned to Neo-rockabilly that suits popular music venues instead of the Rockabilly clubs that expect only original Rockabilly.

The original Rockabilly Hall of Fame was established by Bob Timmers on March 21, 1997, to present early rock and roll history and information relative to the original artists and personalities involved in this pioneering American music genre. It is headquartered in Nashville.

In 2000, an International Rock-A-Billy Hall of Fame Museum was established in Jackson, Tennessee.

Derivative forms of rockabilly include: Psychobilly, punk rock, gothabilly,and country rock.

The sentence "this sentence contains thirty-six letters" contains 36 letters.

Monday, August 17, 2015

Largest Cluster Of Galaxies Found

The sheer size of our universe is unfathomable, so you can imagine the surprise researchers must have experienced when they recently discovered a structure within our universe that measured 5 billion light years across. That's more than one-ninth the size of the entire observable universe, and by far the largest structure ever discovered.

In fact, this mysterious structure is so colossal that it could shatter our current understanding of the cosmos.

“If we are right, this structure contradicts the current models of the universe,” said Lajos Balazs, lead author on the paper, in a press release by the Royal Astronomical Society. “It was a huge surprise to find something this big – and we still don’t quite understand how it came to exist at all.”

Just what is this massive structure? It's not a single, physical object, but rather a cluster of nine massive galaxies bound together gravitationally, much like how our Milky Way is part of a cluster of galaxies. It was discovered after researchers identified a ring of nine gamma ray bursts (GRBs) that appeared to be at very similar distances from us, each around 7 billion light years away.

GRBs are the brightest electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe, caused by a supernova. Their detection typically indicates the presence of a galaxy, so all of the GRBs in this ring are believed to each come from a different galaxy. But their close proximity to one another suggests that these galaxies must be linked together. There is only a 1 in 20,000 probability of the GRBs being in this distribution by chance.

A mega-cluster of this size shouldn't be possible, at least not if you think in terms of our current theories. Those theories predict that the universe ought to be relatively uniform on the largest scales, meaning that the sizes of structures shouldn't vary by much. In fact, the theoretical limit to structure size has been calculated at around 1.2 billion light years across.

If the Hungarian-American team's calculations are correct, then this giant new structure-- which measures in at over 5 billion light years across — would blow that classic model out of the water. In fact, either the researchers' calculations are wrong on this, or scientists will need to radically revise their theories on the evolution of the cosmos.

Needless to say, this GRB cluster discovery has the potential to cause a sweeping paradigm shift in astronomy. At the very least, it reminds us just how small our view of the universe really is.

Sunday, August 16, 2015

Closest Star

Ask somebody what is the closest star? If they know anything about astronomy, they'll probably go through a list of some remembered nearby stars. Sirius? Alpha something or other? Betelgeuse?

The answer is the Sun; that massive ball of plasma located a mere 150 million km from Earth.

But what’s the closest star to the Sun?

It's not Alpha Centauri, the third brightest star in the sky, just 4.37 light-years from Earth -- not exactly.

Alpha Centauri isn’t just one star, it’s a system of three stars. First, there’s a binary pair, orbiting a common center of gravity every 80 years. Alpha Centauri A is just a little more massive and brighter than the Sun, and Alpha Centauri B is slightly less massive than the Sun. Then there’s a third member of this system, the faint red dwarf star, Proxima Centauri.

Proxima Centauri is the closest star to our Sun, located just a short 4.24 light-years away.

Alpha Centauri is located in the Centaurus constellation, which is only visible in the Southern Hemisphere. Unfortunately, even if you can see it, you can’t see Proxima Centauri. It’s too dim to view without a reasonably powerful telescope.

How far away is Proxima Centauri? Think about the distance from the Earth to Pluto. NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft travels at nearly 60,000 km/h, the fastest a spacecraft has ever traveled in the Solar System. It took more than nine years to make the journey when it arrived this year. Travelling at the same speed, it would take New Horizons 78,000 years to get to Proxima Centauri.

Proxima Centauri has been the nearest star for about 32,000 years, and it will remain so for another 33,000 years. Its closest approach to the Sun will be in about 26,700 years, as it gets to about 3.11 light-years of Earth. 33,000 years from now, the nearest star will be Ross 248.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the closest visible star is Barnard’s Star, another red dwarf in the constellation Ophiuchus. Like Proxima Centauri, it’s too dim to see with the unaided eye.

The closest star that you can see with the naked eye in the Northern Hemisphere is Sirius, the Dog Star. Sirius has twice the mass and is almost twice the size of the Sun, and it’s the brightest star in the sky. Located 8.6 light-years away in the constellation Canis Major – it’s very familiar as the bright star chasing Orion across the night sky in Winter.

Astronomers measure the distance to stars using a technique called parallax. Hold one of your arms out at length and put your thumb up so that it’s nest to some distant reference object. Now take turns opening and closing each eye. See how your thumb seems to jump back and forth as you switch eyes? That’s the parallax method.

To measure the distance to stars, you measure the angle to a star when the Earth is one side of its orbit; like in the summer. Then you wait 6 month, until the Earth has moved to the opposite side of its orbit, and then measure the angle to the star compared to some distant reference object. If the star is close, the angle will be measurable, and the distance can be calculated.

You can only really measure the distance to the nearest stars this way, since it only works to about 100 light-years.

Below is a list of the 20 closest star systems and their distance in light-years. Some of these have multiple stars, but they’re part of the same system.

Alpha Centauri – 4.2
Barnard’s Star – 5.9
Wolf 359 – 7.8
 Lalande 21185 – 8.3
 Sirius – 8.6
 Luyten 726-8 – 8.7
Ross 154 – 9.7
Ross 248 – 10.3
Epsilon Eridani – 10.5
 Lacaille 9352 – 10.7
Ross 128 – 10.9
EZ Aquarii – 11.3
Procyon – 11.4 61
Cygni – 11.4
Struve 2398 – 11.5
Groombridge 34 – 11.6
Epison Indi – 11.8
Dx Carncri – 11.8
Tau Ceti – 11.9
GJ 106 – 11.9

According to NASA, there are 45 stars within 17 light years of the Sun, yet there are speculated to be as many as 200 billion stars in our galaxy. Some are so faint that they are nearly impossible to detect. Perhaps, with technological improvements, we will find even closer stars.