Thursday, August 25, 2016
Wednesday, August 24, 2016
John Henry "Doc" Holliday was born on August 4, 1851 in Griffin, Georgia, to Henry Burroughs Holliday and Alice Jane Holliday (née McKey). His father served in the Mexican–American War and in the Confederacy during the Civil War. His family baptized him at the First Presbyterian Church in 1852.
In 1864 his family moved to Valdosta, Georgia. Holliday's mother died of tuberculosis on September 16, 1866, when he was 15 years old. Three months later, his father married Rachel Martin. While in Valdosta, he attended the Valdosta Institute, where he received a strong classical secondary education in rhetoric, grammar, mathematics, history, and languages—principally Latin but also French and some Ancient Greek.
In 1870 the 19-year-old Holliday left home to begin dental school in Philadelphia. On March 1, 1872, at the age of 20, he met the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery from the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery (which later merged with the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine). He graduated five months before his 21st birthday, which would have been problematic since this age was needed both to hold a D.D.S. degree and to practice dentistry as anything other than a student under a preceptor in Georgia.
Holliday did not go home after graduation but worked as an assistant with a classmate, A. Jameson Fuches, Jr., in St. Louis, Missouri. By the end of July he had moved to Atlanta, where he lived with his uncle and his family while beginning his career as a dentist. A few weeks before his birthday, the Atlanta papers carried an announcement by noted dentist Arthur C. Ford in Atlanta that Holliday would fill his place in the office while he was attending dental meetings. This was the beginning of Holliday's career in private practice as a dentist, but it lasted only a short time, until December.
Holliday's cousin by marriage was Margaret Mitchell, who wrote Gone With the Wind.
Shortly after beginning his dental practice, Holliday was diagnosed with tuberculosis. He may have contracted the disease from his mother, although he may also have caught it from a coughing or sneezing patient. Little or no precaution was taken against this during dental procedures, as tuberculosis was not known to be contagious until 1885. He was given only a few months to live, but he considered that moving to the drier and warmer southwestern United States might slow the deterioration of his health.
In September 1873, Holliday moved to Dallas, Texas, where he opened a dental office with fellow dentist and Georgian John A. Seegar. Their office was located between Market and Austin Streets along Elm Street, about three blocks east of the site of today's Dealey Plaza. He soon began gambling and realized this was a more profitable source of income, since patients feared going to his office because of his ongoing cough. On May 12, 1874, Holliday and 12 others were indicted in Dallas for illegal gambling. He was arrested in Dallas in January 1875 after trading gunfire with a saloon-keeper, but no one was injured and he was found not guilty. He moved his offices to Denison, Texas, and after being found guilty of, and fined for, "gaming" in Dallas, he decided to leave the state.
Holliday made his way to Denver, traveling the stage routes and staying at army outposts along the way, practicing his trade as a gambler. In the summer of 1875 he settled in Denver under the alias "Tom Mackey", working as a Faro dealer for John A. Babb's Theatre Comique at 357 Blake street. Here he heard about gold being discovered in Wyoming, and on February 5, 1876, he relocated to Cheyenne, working as a dealer for Babb's partner, Thomas Miller, who owned a saloon called the Bella Union. In the fall of 1876, Miller moved the Bella Union to Deadwood (site of the gold rush in the Dakota Territory), and Holliday moved with him.
In 1877, Holliday returned to Cheyenne and Denver, eventually making his way to Kansas to visit an aunt. He left Kansas and returned to Texas, setting up as a gambler in the town of Breckenridge, Texas. On July 4, 1877, he got involved in an altercation with another gambler named Henry Kahn, whom Holliday beat with his walking stick repeatedly. Both men were arrested and fined, but later in the day Kahn shot Holliday, wounding him seriously.
Holliday was still practicing dentistry on the side from his rooms in Fort Griffin and in Dodge City, as indicated in an 1878 Dodge newspaper advertisement (he promised money back for less than complete customer satisfaction), but this is the last known time he attempted to practice. Holliday was primarily a gambler, although he had a reputation as a deadly gunman. Modern research has only identified three instances in which he shot someone. In the summer of 1878, Holliday assisted Earp during a barroom confrontation when Earp "was surrounded by desperadoes". Earp credited Holliday with saving his life that day, and the two became friends as a result.
One documented instance happened when Holliday was employed during a railroad dispute. On July 19, 1879, Holliday and noted gunman John Joshua Webb were seated in a saloon in Las Vegas, New Mexico, when former U.S. Army scout named Mike Gordon tried to persuade one of the saloon girls, a former girlfriend, to leave town with him. When she refused, Gordon stormed outside, One report says he began firing into the building, and another that after Doc followed him outside, Gordon shot at him. In either case, Holliday pulled his own weapon and killed him. When Gordon died the next day, Holliday left town.
Dodge City was not a frontier town for long. By 1879 it had become too respectable for the sort of people who had seen it through its early days. For many, it was time to move on to places not yet reached by the civilizing railroad—places where money was to be made. By this time Holliday was as well known for his prowess as a gunfighter as for his gambling, although the latter was his trade and the former was simply a reputation. Through his friendship with Wyatt and the other Earp brothers, especially Morgan and Virgil, Holliday made his way to the silver-mining boom town of Tombstone, Arizona Territory, in September 1880. The Earps had been there since December 1879. Some accounts state that the Earps sent for Holliday when they realized the problems they faced in their feud with the Cowboy faction. In Tombstone, Holliday quickly became embroiled in the local politics and violence that led up to the famous Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in October 1881.
|Gunfight at the OK Corral|
It is known that Holliday carried a coach gun from the local stage office into the fight. He was given the weapon just before the fight by Virgil Earp, as Holliday was wearing a long coat that could conceal it. Virgil Earp in turn took Holliday's walking stick, and by not going conspicuously armed, Virgil was seeking to avoid alarm in the citizenry of Tombstone, and in the Clantons and McLaurys.
An inquest and arraignment hearing determined the gunfight was not a criminal act on the part of Holliday and the Earps. The situation in Tombstone soon grew worse when Virgil Earp was ambushed and permanently injured in December 1881. Then Morgan Earp was ambushed and killed in March 1882. After Morgan's murder, Virgil Earp and many remaining members of the Earp families fled town. Holliday and Wyatt Earp stayed in Tombstone to exact retribution on Ike Clanton and the corrupt members known as the Cowboys. In Tucson, while Wyatt, Warren Earp, and Holliday were escorting the wounded Virgil Earp and his wife Allie on the first stage of their trip to California, they prevented another ambush, and this may have been the start of the vendetta against Morgan's killers.
Several Cowboys were identified by witnesses as suspects in the shooting of Virgil Earp on December 27, 1881, and the assassination of Morgan Earp on March 19, 1882. Some circumstantial evidence also pointed to their involvement.
Wyatt Earp had been appointed Deputy U.S. Marshall after Virgil was maimed. He deputized Holliday, Warren Earp, Sherman McMasters, and "Turkey Creek" Jack Johnson, and they guarded Virgil Earp and his wife Allie on their way to the train for California. In Tucson, the group spotted Frank Stilwell and Ike Clanton who they thought was lying in wait to kill Virgil. On Monday, March 20, 1882, Frank Stilwell's body was found at dawn alongside the railroad tracks, riddled with buckshot and gunshot wounds.
On May 15, 1882, Holliday was arrested in Denver on the Arizona warrant for murdering Frank Stilwell. Wyatt Earp, fearing that Holliday could not receive a fair trial in Arizona, asked his friend Bat Masterson, Chief of Police of Trinidad, Colorado, to help get Holliday released. The extradition hearing was set for May 30. Late in the evening of May 29, Masterson needed help getting an appointment with Colorado Governor Frederick Walker Pitkin. He contacted E.D. Cowen, capital reporter for the Denver Tribune, who held political sway in town. Cowen later wrote, "He submitted proof of the criminal design upon Holliday's life. Late as the hour was, I called on Pitkin." After meeting with Masterson, Pitkin was persuaded by whatever evidence he presented and refused to honor Arizona's extradition request. His legal reasoning was that the extradition papers for Holliday contained faulty legal language, and that there was already a Colorado warrant out for Holliday—one on bunco charges that Masterson had fabricated in Pueblo, Colorado.
Masterson took Holliday to Pueblo, where he was released on bond two weeks after his arrest. Holliday and Wyatt met briefly after Holliday's release during June 1882 in Gunnison.
On July 14, 1882, Johnny Ringo was found dead in the crotch of a large tree in West Turkey Creek Valley, near Chiricahua Peak, Arizona Territory, with a bullet hole in his right temple and a revolver hanging from a finger of his hand. The book, I Married Wyatt Earp, supposedly written by Josephine Marcus Earp, reported that Wyatt Earp and Holliday returned to Arizona to find and kill Ringo. Actually written by Glen Boyer, the book states that Holliday killed Ringo with a rifle shot at a distance, contradicting the coroner's ruling that Ringo's death was a suicide. However, Boyer's book has been discredited as a fraud and a hoax that cannot be relied upon. In response to criticism about the book's authenticity, Boyer said the book was not really a first-person account, that he had interpreted Wyatt Earp in Josephine's voice, and admitted that he could not produce any documents to vindicate his methods.
Official records of the Pueblo County, Colorado, District Court indicate that both Holliday and his attorney appeared in court there on July 11, 14, and 18, 1882. Author Karen Holliday Tanner, in Doc Holliday, A Family Portrait, speculated that Holliday may not have been in Pueblo at the time of the court date, citing a writ of habeas corpus issued for him in court on July 11. She believes that only his attorney may have appeared on his behalf that day, in spite of the wording of a court record that indicated he may have appeared in person—in propria persona or "in his own person". She cites this as standard legal filler text that does not necessarily prove the person was present. There is no doubt that Holliday arrived in Salida, Colorado, on July 7 as reported in a town newspaper. This is 500 miles (800 km) from the site of Ringo's death, six days before the shooting.
Holliday spent the rest of his life in Colorado. After a stay in Leadville, he suffered from the high altitude. He increasingly depended on alcohol and laudanum to ease the symptoms of tuberculosis, and his health and his ability to gamble began to deteriorate.
|Big Nose Kate|
Recent Holliday biographer Gary L. Roberts, however, considers it unlikely that Holliday, who had scarcely left his bed for two months, would have been able to speak coherently, if at all, on the day he died. Although the legend persists that Wyatt Earp was present when Holliday died, Earp did not learn of Holliday's death until two months afterward. Big Nose Kate later said she attended to him in his final days, but it is also doubtful that she was present.
The Glenwood Springs Ute Chief of November 12, 1887, wrote in his obituary that Holliday had been baptized in the Catholic Church. This assertion in his obituary was based on correspondence written between Holliday and his cousin, Sister Mary Melanie, a Catholic nun. No baptismal record exists, however, in St. Stephen's Catholic Church in Glenwood Springs or at the Annunciation Catholic Church in nearby Leadville, Colorado. Holliday's mother had been raised a Methodist and later joined a Presbyterian church (her husband's faith) but objected to the Presbyterian doctrine of predestination and reconverted to Methodism publicly before she died, saying she wanted her son John to know what she believed. Holliday himself was later to say that he had joined a Methodist church in Dallas. At the end of his life, Holliday had struck up friendships with both a Catholic priest, Father E.T. Downey, and a Presbyterian minister, Rev. W.S. Randolph, in Glenwood Springs. When he died, Father Downey was out of town, and so Rev. Randolph presided over the burial at 4 pm on the same day Holliday died. The services were said to be in the presence of "many friends."
He is buried in Linwood Cemetery overlooking Glenwood Springs. Because it was November and the ground may have been frozen, some authors like Bob Boze Bell have speculated that Holliday could not have been buried in his marked grave in the Linwood Cemetery, which was only accessible via a difficult mountain road. Holliday biographer Gary Roberts, however, has located evidence that other bodies were transported to the Linwood Cemetery at the same time of the month that year. And the papers reported at the time explicitly that the burial was in the Linwood Cemetery; no exhumation has been attempted.
In an 1896 article Wyatt Earp said that "Doc was a dentist, not a lawman or an assassin, whom necessity had made a gambler; a gentleman whom disease had made a frontier vagabond; a philosopher whom life had made a caustic wit; a long lean, ash-blond fellow nearly dead with consumption, and at the same time the most skillful gambler and the nerviest, speediest, deadliest man with a six-gun that I ever knew."
In a newspaper interview Holliday was once asked if his conscience ever troubled him. He is reported to have said, "I coughed that up with my lungs, years ago."
|Holliday & Big Nose Kate|
Publicly, Holliday could be as fierce as was needed for a gambling man to earn respect. In Tombstone in January 1882, he told Johnny Ringo (as recorded by diarist Parsons), "All I want of you is ten paces out in the street." He and Ringo were prevented from a gunfight only by the Tombstone police (which did not include the Earps at the time), who arrested them both. During the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, Holliday likely killed Tom McLaury and probably fired the second bullet, which killed Frank McLaury. Although Frank McLaury is sometimes erroneously stated to have been hit by three bullets (based on the next-day news accounts in Tombstone papers), the coroner's inquest found Frank was hit only in the stomach and through the back of the head under his ear; therefore, either Holliday or Wyatt missed Frank. Holliday was also present at the death of Frank Stilwell in Tucson, Arizona, and the other three men killed during the Earp Vendetta Ride.
In three of his four known pistol fights, he shot one opponent (Billy Allen) in the arm and one (Charles White) across the scalp and missed one man (saloonkeeper Charles Austin) entirely. In an early incident in Tombstone in 1880, shortly after he arrived in town, a drunken Holliday managed to shoot Oriental Saloon owner Milt Joyce in the hand and his bartender Parker in the toe (neither was the man Holliday originally quarreled with). For this, Holliday was fined for assault and battery. With the exception of Mike Gordon in 1879, there are no contemporaneous newspaper or legal records to match the many unnamed men whom Holliday is credited with killing in popular folklore; the same is true for the several tales of knifings credited to Holliday by early biographers. Some scholars have argued that Holliday may have allowed his reputation to remain as it was and in reality may not have killed anyone.
In a March 1882 interview with the Arizona Daily Star, Virgil Earp told the reporter, "There was something very peculiar about Doc. He was gentlemanly, a good dentist, a friendly man, and yet outside of us boys I don't think he had a friend in the Territory. Tales were told that he had murdered men in different parts of the country; that he had robbed and committed all manner of crimes, and yet when persons were asked how they knew it, they could only admit that it was hearsay, and that nothing of the kind could really be traced up to Doc's account."
Biographer Karen Holliday Tanner found that Holliday had been arrested 17 times before his 1881 shootout in Tombstone. Only one arrest, an 1879 shootout with Mike Gordon in New Mexico, was for murder. Holliday was not successfully prosecuted. In the preliminary hearing following the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, Judge Wells Spicer exonerated Holliday's actions as a duly appointed lawman. In Denver, the warrant for Frank Stilwell's murder went unserved when the governor was persuaded by Trinidad Chief of Police Bat Masterson to release Holliday to his custody for bunco charges.
Out of all his other arrests, Holliday pleaded guilty to two gambling charges, one charge of carrying a deadly weapon in the city (in connection with the argument with Ringo), and one misdemeanor assault and battery charge (his shooting of Joyce and Parker). The others were all dismissed or returned as "not guilty".
According to Earp, Holliday was playing poker with a well-liked local man named Ed Bailey. Holliday caught Bailey "monkeying with the dead wood," or the discard pile, which was against the rules. Holliday reminded Bailey to "play poker", which was a polite way to caution him to stop cheating. When Bailey made the same move again, Holliday took the pot without showing his hand, which was his right under the rules. Bailey immediately went for his pistol, but Holliday whipped out a knife from his breast pocket and "caught Bailey just below the brisket" or upper chest. Bailey died and Holliday, new to town, was detained in his room at the Planter's Hotel.
In Stuart Lake's best-selling biography, Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal (1931), Earp is quoted as saying that Holliday's girlfriend, Big Nose Kate, devised a diversion. She procured a second pistol from a friend in town and then, removing a horse from its shed behind the hotel, set fire to the shed. When everyone but Holliday and the lawmen guarding him ran to put out the fire, she calmly walked in and tossed Holliday the second pistol. However, no contemporary records of any either Bailey's death or of the shed fire have been found. In addition, Big Nose Kate denied before she died in 1940 that the story was true and laughed at the idea of "a 116-pound woman holding a gun on a sheriff".
Tuesday, August 23, 2016
I watched the McGregor/Diaz fight again last night and can safely report that my conclusions are the same about the outcome of the contest. McGregor won by pummeling Diaz more often than Diaz pummeled McGregor. Furthermore, McGregor proves himself to be a master tactician and a consummate martial artist who tenaciously earned his victory. Diaz was good too, just not quite good enough. Conor was the smaller man by 20 pounds or so and it showed when the two men squared off. Diaz towered over McGregor and looked huge, landing heavy shots of his own. McGregor, however, didn't go down whereas Diaz was knocked down three times in the first two rounds. There will probably be a rubber match one of these days but if I was Conor, I'd wedge in a couple of money bouts first. The UFC is going to make McGregor defend his title again against Jose Aldo and that means McGregor now must drop back down to 145 pounds. McGregor was 168 prior to the Diaz fight and by all indications had a tough time putting on muscle weight for the contest. In any case, both McGregor's and Diaz's stock has risen as their popularity has grown. We'll be seeing both of these guys in big fights in the near future. Conor McGregor is the biggest draw in the UFC organization, maybe in the world. Tell me, would you rather watch Floyd Mayweather run from an opponent for ten rounds or watch real warriors slug it out for
Sunday, August 21, 2016
Welcome to the 16th edition of the NTD Sunday Edition. Things are getting even more interesting in the US presidential race with the media totally in the sack for the Democrats. Truly an amazing failure of how the American political system is supposed to work. However, as they always say, it isn't over until Pelosi squeals.
I typically begin my daily data review with a look at the Associated Press headlines. Now, everybody knows AP is a total propaganda news service for the establishment, right? Today's top headline was that Illinois (perennially Democrat-controlled) had passed new rules for domestic workers; that is, those who work as servants to other Americans. By the way, do you have any servants? I don't, although I wouldn't mind having my own personal welder or maybe a mechanic to work on my old truck. Anyway, the new rules guarantee domestic workers are not sexually harassed, get a day off every week, and that they make minimum wage. Oh, thank you, great state of Illinois, for granting these rights to thy domesticated workers. What would butlers and nannies do without the oversight from the righteous assembly of Illinois legislators? How are you going to make sure people aren't sexually harassed? Put a bag over their head? Make 'em wear a moo-moo?
• Trump was definitely looking and acting presidential in Louisiana on Friday. Note that I don't pay attention to polls, but the press says he's up by 2 points on Hillary today.
• New York state is now considered the least free state in the union. Go here.
• Bruce Caitlyn Jenner's reality show concerning his gender identity transformation, I Am Cait, has been cancelled after two seasons. I never saw it. Was it entertaining?
• Ya think the 2016 presidential election is rigged? Trump says so and personally, I agree. The whole game is fixed. Trump also says he will stop all the terror and chaos if he is elected. Furthermore, he says he will do it quickly. How can he do it? He knows these events we see unfolding on the television are staged events put on by covert groups with the permission of key local authorities. From the office of the president, it should be relatively simple to hunt down the covert groups responsible, whether they be Mossad or CIA or simply some good-time-Marys bankrolled by Soros or some perverted Saudi prince. I guarantee Trump already has a lengthy list of guilty actors (Sandy Hook, San Bernadino, Aurora, South Carolina, Dallas, Florida....)
• I look for valuable news in the sciences to include in my weekly missive, although with all the bogus events and made-up stuff released via the Associated Press and Reuters, or UPI, there is no telling what's real and true anymore. The media is publishing fake news stories just to get you to click on the link (somewhere that click = .2568 cents). Well, if some stories are faked, then I guess I can pass along my own.
|Kitties without fur would be too cold.|
• George Soros has given $650,000 to the BlackLivesMatter radical racial political organization to help destabilize American society. Pretty cheap price, come to think of it.
• I see Time magazine has an article in the current issue condemning internet trolls and blaming them for the ills of society. This is the sort of propaganda we'll be bombed with until more restrictions are put on the internet which should be pretty easy since control of the internet was handed over this week by our glorious leader King "O" to an international, UN-controlled group. Freedom of speech on the internet? Not so much. Learn how to use proxies.
• The George Soros computer hack has revealed communiques and close links to UN migration representative and former Goldman Sachs executive Peter Sutherland.
On the United Nations website, Sutherland is described as a “strong advocate for promoting practical action to increase the benefits of migration” and has routinely made comments against national borders and national sovereignty in Europe. Sutherland has even called for the European Union to “undermine the homogeneity” of member states.
What this brouhaha indicates is that all this immigration and social upheaval is a planned exercise by global elitists, including Barack Obama and the minions of George Soros. Their goal is a world without borders -- noble, perhaps, but incredibly misguided.
There's lots more news, but you have to be concerned about the reality of it all. They're only telling us what they want us to believe. Get it? Have a nice day and don't forget to question all authority.
Saturday, August 20, 2016
|Epiphany III by Wen-JR|
Author Thomas Stone is in fine form as he returns to his Braithwaite universe in a wondrous tale of interstellar exploration, time travel, and intrigue. A scientific survey team has been sent to the steamy swamps on Xylanthia in pursuit of knowledge and profit, but Xylanthia is a place where anything can happen and often does.
"Time reveals the universe at play. It exists only as an abstract in the present moment; time must move before it becomes real."
-- Arai the Bedoran
-- Arai the Bedoran